In people with TID, the immune system attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced – or no insulin at all. T1D affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14.
Since the insulin-producing cells are destroyed in TID, insulin has to be artificially delivered by injection, or sometimes by pump or oral medication every day for the rest of their life. Even though this treatment certainly makes a big difference in the quality of life for the patients, long-term diabetes complications are common. The small blood vessels can be damaged and don’t deliver blood as well as they should, leading to problems with the patients eyes, kidneys, and nerves.